X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is an analytical technique that detects the characteristic electrons ejected from the surface of a sample. Elements from Li to U can be detected. The technique is highly surface sensitive – the typical detection depth is ~5 nm – and can detect light elements such as Si (Z =14) and below at about 1% of the total surface composition and heavier elements down to ~0.1 % with an accuracy of 20 – 50 percent of the given value.
Dry samples of solid, powders and thin films
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